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Hormones

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HORMONES ANATOMY

Hormones in the human body are chemically based organically produced little messengers for the glands and the endocrine system. Hormones are the key to basic regulation of various systems. Steroid hormones, protein hormones, and amine hormones are the three specifically designated hormones variations of the endocrine system. Each hormone type is either created from the cholesterol naturally produced in the body or derived from naturally occurring amino acids. Amino acid derivatives are responsible for the creation of protein hormones, which are then laced together via peptide chains. Protein hormones account for the vast majority of hormones in the human body. This includes but is not limited to calcitonin produced by the thyroid gland, as well as the hormones created and released by the pancreas, pituitary gland, and the parathyroid glands.

While it is possible to orally introduce synthetic hormones into the body, protein based hormones are an exception to this practice. Protein hormones can survive being injected into the human body, but without their peptide bonds (as would be the case with ingested protein hormones) the hormone would split and become utterly useless during the digestive action known as hydrolytic reaction. Injection can occur into the veins, into the muscles, or just under the skin.

Cholesterol can be manipulated to ultimately create a lipid in the form of a steroid. Ultimately, steroids are highly complicated rings of hydrogen and carbon atoms. The type of steroid that is created is determined by what type and what combination of atoms are conjoined to the ring. Estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, cortisone, and cortisol are just a few of the more than 20 variations of steroids produced naturally in the body. Hormones like those released by the adrenal cortex as well as those released by the sexual organs, or gonads, are steroid hormones. When these natural sources of steroid production either malfunction or otherwise do not release the appropriate amount of steroid into the body, synthetic steroids can be introduced into the system.

HORMONES DIAGRAM

Hormones
Image: Hormones


Amino acids in the body which are devoid of peptide bonds create amines. Anime molecules, which belong naturally to the amine group, are comprised of a variety of molecules including carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen. This groups (-NH2) is often overlooked in the endocrine system. Some of the more readily known amines include norepinephrine which is released by the adrenal gland, thyroxine that is released by the activities of the thyroid, and melatonin which is created by the pineal gland. Synthetic versions of these particular hormones can be administered when the body is not producing appropriate amounts. Epinephrine and norepinephrine are usually administered directly via the veins to decrease the chances of dangerous results from a lack of the appropriate amount. Epinephrine is versatile enough to be administered as an inhalant when the lings are in need of additional steroid action. Thyroxine is more effective when taken orally.

HORMONES FUNCTIONS

Hormones are basically responsible for either initiating an increased rate, or initiating a decreased rate of metabolism in the target cells. Hormones are created to be exacting in their performance, meaning that the cells and their intention of action is precise and they do not initiate any form of action beyond their target cells. This is be design, and a hormone can only affect a cell if there are either receptor molecules within the cell structure or receptor sites somewhere along the cell membrane.


Steroid hormones are unique in their ability to become soluble in lipids along with their ability to easily pass through a cell membrane. This enables the steroid to join with various cell proteins in order to create a steroid-protein compound. The creation of this particular compound permits the synthesis of very specific RNA messenger molecules.

Both protein and amine hormones must adhere to designated receptor sites within the cell membrane. This is due to the fact that both of these hormones are insoluble in lipids. While they are unable to enter the cell membrane, their cohesion with the cell membrane facilitates an accelerated activity level of an enzyme known as the adenylate cyclase. Adenylate cyclase is basically responsible for initiating changes in the cellular make up through the conversion of ATP molecules to cyclic AMP (also known as adenosine monophosphate.) The cellular changes that occur may include anything from changing the membrane’s permeability, increasing protein synthesis, or initiating cellular enzymes.
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