Neurons are constructed in various varieties, but each shares the commonality of dendrites which enable receptions and an axon which enables nerve pulse conduction. Neurons are classified based on their structure and function. Various types of neuroglia provide structural and functional support to each individual neuron. Neurons and neuroglia comprise the basic cell structure of the entire central nervous system. Neurons are the basic structural and functional primary of the nervous system, their design is to appropriately respond to stimuli as well as chemical release. They are responsible for conducting impulses and the release of chemical regulators.


The system’s use of the neurons permits such activities such as thinking, memory, gland regulation, and organ regulation. Neurons do not go through the process of mitoticular division but have been known to recover from severing by regenerating new cell growth.

The support cells of the central nervous system are known as neuroglia. With limited mitotic division, these cells are more abundant than neurons and provide general support throughout the system.

Despite the vast differences in shape and size, all neurons are equipped with three basic components. The cell body is the principle element and resembles the bodies of other various cells. The cell body contains a large and prominent nucleolus that supports the nucleus. The majority of the cell body is made up of the cytoplasm.


Image: Neurons

The cytoplasm of these cells is similar to other cells, determined by the same organelles and varies from others cells, determined by the presence of chromotophilic substances and neurofibrils. Neurofibrils are filament strands of protein.


The chromotophilic substances are responsible for protein synthesis. They appear as granular layers of endoplasmic reticulum and minute microtubules. It appears they are additionally responsible for the transportation of material in the cell via the microtubules while the endoplasmic reticulum assists in the protein synthesis action. The cells of the central nervous system are often clustered in groups of cells called nuclei and are found in groups known as ganglia.


Small branches reaching out from the cell are known as dendrites which are there to help the cell determine stimuli to respond to. Dendrites also are responsible for conduction of impulses to the cell body. While providing contact points for other neurons, as well as increasing the surface area of the cell body, the dendrites are also covered with dendric spinules which reach out from the cell. Dendrites are given their own area of the cell known as the dendritic zone.

The second type of plasmatic extension from the cell is the axon, which can look like an elongated dendrite. The axon is a slender long fingerlike process that sends impulses away from the cell body. The length of an axon varies depending on its location and function. It can be only a few millimeters or it can grow to over a meter in speficic areas of the spinal cord. Collateral branches reach off to the side and extend out from the cell. The cytoplasm of axon is comprised of microtubules, mitochondria, and neurofibrils.
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