Peripheral ganglia


There is an exit from the spinal cord, right around the same level as the diaphragm, that serves the preganglionic neurons. The large percentage of preganglionic neurons that pass through this exit point do so without ever having synapsed in the sympathetic trunk. Once through the sympathetic trunk, the preganglionic neurons then form the splanchnic nerves.


The peripheral ganglia is inclusive to the cilia, the superior mesenteric, and the inferior mesenteric ganglia, and is receptive to the synapse of the preganglionic neurons and the splanchnic nerves. The preganglionic neurons known as T4 through T9 are responsible for the rise of the greater splanchnic nerve, which is created in part by the synapse of the celiac ganglion. The celiac plexus, or solar plexus, is in part contributed to by these name neurons. The organs such as the stomach, the spleen, the liver, the kidney, the pancreas, and the small intestine are receptive to innervation which arise from the postganglionic neurons from the celiac ganglion. The superior mesenteric ganglion is the point of termination for the lesser splanchnic nerve. The small intestine and the colon are receptive to their innervation via these postganglionic neurons. Genital organs, the urinary bladder, and the distal colon and rectum are receptive to their innervation from the postganglionic neurons arising from the lumbar splanchnic nerve and the synapse of the inferior mesenteric ganglion.
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