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Pituitary gland

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PITUITARY GLAND ANATOMY

The hypothalamus is responsible for creating the hormones which the neurohypophysis of the pituitary gland releases into the human body. Alternatively, the adenohypophysis of the pituitary gland is able to create and secrete its own hormones. These hormones are actually created as a response system to the hormones released by the neurohypophysis as a regulatory action. The hypothalamus is largely responsible for the control of hormone production and secretion, with assistance from the negative feedback given by the target glands.

PITUITARY GLAND DEFINITION

The pituitary gland is also known as the cerebral hypophysis. It can be found along the inferior aspect of the brain in the diencephalon area. A pituitary stalk is responsible for keeping the brain and the gland attached to each other. The pituitary gland is small, only about 1.3 centimeters around, and resembles a pea. The gland itself is covered in dura mater and is structurally provided for by the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone. The pituitary gland creates a very high demand for blood, and its supply needs are furnished by the cerebral arterial circle.

PITUITARY GLAND DIAGRAM

Pituitary gland
Image: Pituitary Gland


The gland itself is actually segregated into two sections, an anterior and posterior lobe. The posterior lobe is referred to as the neuropophysis while the anterior lobe is known as the adenhypophysis. Each serves as a structural lobe as well as a functional lobe. In the adult human body, the adenhypophysis is additionally divided into two segments known as the pars distalis and the bulbar portion. The thin segregating section meets with the infundibulum and and is known as the pars tuberalis. A fetal human body is known to have the pars intermedia, which is nothing more than a thin layer of tissue that separates the posterior and anterior lobe.

As a fetus develops and matures, this layer of tissue begins to interweave with cells from the anterior lobe. Eventually, it can not be distinguished in an adult body. The neural segment of the pituitary gland is in fact the neurohypophysis. It is the posterior segment and is created in part by the bulbar lobus nervosa. The bulbar lobus nervosa is the intermingled with the connective tissue “stalk” responsible for maintaining contact with the brain at the base of the hypothalamus. This “stalk” is known as the infundibulum and is easy to recognize as it resembles as funnel. The infundibulum is the conducting tissue that connects and permits passage of the nerve fibers and the pituicytes, which are hardly discernable neuroglia type cells.
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