Proprioceptors are constantly determining the body’s position and the way it is moving through space. Changes in tension, sensations of stretch, and muscles responses provide information to the brain that determines whether the body is walking, sitting, standing, running, or dancing. Action potentials reach the cerebellum and transmit into this information. This information is then used to fine tune the body’s responses, such as initiate muscle contractions to enhance speed.


This creates a stronger sense of coordination in the movements of the body. While not all proprioceptors will, there are a handful that are able to transmit information to such a minute level that it is considered to be kinesthetic, and the individual body part can be perceived Kinesthetic sense makes it possible for a heightened awareness on a conscious level, which makes activities such as getting dressed in the dark possible. It allows the mind to understand the body without visual aid.

Individuals devoid of eyesight are able to understand a heightened kinesthetic sense, which is sharpened along with their sense of hearing, to allow them to move about in the world. The quick and smooth muscle movements that allow for coordination are essential for basic movement, otherwise the human body would fall down unexpectedly, risking injury. This fluid movement is produced via the high speed rapid transmission of kinesthetic sense which permits the flow of muscle movements that lead to coordination.


Image: Proprioceptors

Proprioceptors can be found in various locations throughout the body such as the inner ear, in synovial joints, stuffed in between the tendons and the muscles, and within the framework of skeletal muscles. There are four basic types of proprioceptors.

Found within the synovial joint capsules, one can find the proprioceptors known as joint kinesthetic receptors. When the individual joint move, these proprioceptors respond with information for the brain on the movement and the position of the limb.

Skeletal muscle hosts the neuromuscular spindles. There are more of these in these muscles of the limbs than elsewhere. These proprioceptors are responsible for sending information back to the brain that determines the increase or decrease in muscle tension, which is determined by the lengthening or stretching of individual fibers.

This relays information regarding the rate of muscle contraction as well as the speed of muscle contraction. The endings of the sensory neurons spiral around particular muscle fibers in order to sense the changes in each individual muscle fiber, which in turn permits them to discern this information.


Just where the muscles and the tendons meet, there are proprioceptors known as neurotendinous receptors. These are often also referred to as Golgi tendon organs. When a muscle stretches or contracts, the proprioceptors of that tendon are stimulated and are able to gather the appropriate information and send it back to the brain.

The membranous labyrinth is a ductile structure that is filled with fluids. Here, in the inner ear, there are sensory hair cells.
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