The scrotum is specially designed to house the testes and provide structural support for these vital organs. Septum, a specialized connective tissue, is responsible for the internal division that creates two specific compartments to house the testes.

The scrotum, along with the penis, is firmly attached to the anterior section of a triangular shaped area known as urogenital triangle. The posterior section of this triangle comprises the anus.


Just behind the base of the penis, the scrotum hangs in its protective sac. The scrotum is mainly responsible for providing structural support of the testes while offering them protection as well as maintains their position as it pertains to the male body’s pelvic area. The skin of the scrotum in an adult male body is usually darker than the rest of the skin of the human body. While it has sparse hair that offers additional protection, it also is covered with a very soft skin. Sebaceous glands are housed within the scrotum.

Scrotal muscles are responsible for the variations in appearance. The scrotum of one male body may appear different at various stages of contraction of these specialized muscles. A layer of smooth muscle tissue known as dartos is positioned just under the scrotum’s skin. The spermatic cord creates the grounding for a small amount of the bands of skeletal muscle within the scrotum.


Image: Scrotum

This band is known as cremaster and is helps to create the spermatic cord, which is a fascia tube responsible for encompassing the testicular nerves, vessels and the ductus deferens. Clod temperatures affect the cremaster and the dartos, which entices them to contract in an effort to provide the scrotum with more body heat by shrinking it and drawing it closer to the body. The abdominal oblique muscle creates a continuation which turns into the cremaster. The cremaster then continues to create the testes. This muscle can act in both voluntary and involuntary methods. When this muscle contracts to preserve heat and seek the warmth of the pelvic region, the testes become wrinkled and shriveled.

The opposite is also true, and when there is ample heat, these muscle become relaxed and are likely to visually hang lower, away from the body heat offered by the pelvic region. The scrotum is ultimately seeking temperatures that are about 3 ½ degrees below the body’s normal temperature. The chronic contracting and relaxing of the scrotal muscles help regulate the temperature of the testes. The testes are ultimately seeking the optimal temperature for healthy sperm.

Structurally, the scrotum is actually segregated into two distinct segments. The compartments are created length wise and maintain their separation via a fibrous scrotal septum. This internal segregation helps to protect testes from being infected or damaged via disease of the other one.


To help protect against damage, the left testis descends farther down than the right to avoid compression in the event of impact. The surface of the testes provides evidence of the scrotal septum with the appearance of a longitudinal line that runs front to back over the entire testis, with the exception of where it attaches to the body. This ridge is referred to as perineal raphe.

The scrotum has a high demand for the supply of blood as well as the supply of nerve activity. The internal iliac artery sends off a branch of the called the internal pudental branch which in turn serves the blood demands of the scrotum. The femoral artery also sends out a branch to serve the blood demands of the scrotum known as the external pudental branch. And finally, the inferior epigastric artery sends off the cremasteric branch to fulfill the blood demands of the scrotum. Just like most of the human body, the venous drainage flows a nearly identical path in reverse. The basic nerves of the scrotum are sensory nerves. This includes the posterior coetaneous nerves that lead in from the thigh, pudental nerves, and ilioinguinal nerves.
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