Tibiofemoral joint


Positioned between the femur and the tibia rests the largest and most vulnerable joint in the human body. The knee is by far the most complicated joint as well. The complexity of the joint is primarily due to its ability to provide hinge movement and to provide supple twisting and gliding joint movement as well. With the flexion and tension that the knee can perform it is highly prone to injury.


The knee joint is amply protected by the patella which provides stabilization as well. To form the gliding patellafemoral joint the patella in conjunction with the patella ligament creates a moveable joint within a joint.

There are 2 supportive bands which are created by the tendons which attach the quadriceps are known as the lateral and medial patellar retinacular. The anterior portion of the knee has 4 bursae. These include the subcutaneous pre-patellar bursa, the supra-patellar bursa, the cutaneous pre-patellar bursa, and the infrapatellar bursa.


Tibiofemoral Joint
Image: Tibiofemoral Joint


The popliteal fossa refers to the posterior aspect of the knee. The popliteal ligament is quite broad and slopes downward. This along with the arcuate popliteal ligament is thought to be in a position that renders it rather superficial. Deep within the knee joint two ligaments, the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments are in a position to work harder and provide much greater stability.

The back of the knee contains the popliteal bursa and the semi-membraneous bursa. The medial and lateral sides of the knee are supported by the very strong collateral ligaments. The medial menisci, which are disks of cartilage designed to protect and cushion the joint, are connected to the joint via the transverse ligament. They are positioned between the distal femoral and the proximal tibial condyles. Additionally throughout the joint, there are bursae that provide protection for nearly every angle possible, creating a total of 13 bursae in the knee joint.
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