Just like the kidneys, the ureters are retroperitoneal. The ureters are tubular organs which run from the renal pelvis to the posterolateral base of the urinary bladder. At about 25 centimeters long, the ureters are only about 1 centimeter round at its thickest point, which is the entry point of the bladder.


Three tunics, or layers, create the walls of the tube of the ureters. The renal tubules and the urinary bladder create a continuation with the ureters.

The inner lining is the mucosa lining, which is made up of transitional epithelial cells. The secreted mucous of this layer keeps the inner walls protected with a chronic film.

The muscularis layer is the middle layer of the ureters. Smooth muscle tissue creates distinctive inner longitudinal layers as well as circular outer layers.

The proximal one third of the ureters is additionally protected by an extra layer of the longitudinal layer on top of the circular layer.


Image: Ureters

Urine is transported through the ureters via muscular movements of the urinary tract’s perisctalic muscular waves. When the renal pelvis becomes laden with urine, the peristaltic wave action creates the appropriate for to encourage urine to leave the body. The amount of urine in the renal pelvis determines the frequency of the peristaltic wave action, which can range anywhere from once to every few minutes to once every few seconds. This action creates a pressure force that moves the urine through the ureters and into the bladder in small spurts.


The adventitia is the outer layer of the ureters, which is created by loose connective tissue which is designed to aid in protecting the more fragile layers underneath. The ureters are also held in place via the loose connective tissue. The ureters are supplied with arterial flow through various sources. The superior segment is supplied by branches from the renal artery. The testicular artery (which is also known as both the ovarian artery, appropriately or generically the gonadal artery) serves the middle segment of the ureters. The pelvic region receives its blood supply from the superior vesicular artery. Of course, the venous return runs the corresponding course in line with the arteries.
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