Uterine wall


The perimetrium, the myometrium, and the endometrium are layered accordingly to create the wall of the uterus. A thin, visceral peritoneum creates the outer serosal layer of the perimetrium.


The broad ligament runs and creates a continuation right along the lateral segment of the uterine wall. The vesicouterine pouch is the shallow pouch which is created where the peritoneum adjusts over the urinary bladder.

An adjustment over the rectum forms a similar pouch known as the rectouterine pouch or the pouch of Douglas. This pouch is the lowest place within the uterus and is often used surgically as a point of entry.


Uterine Wall
Image: Uterine Wall

The myometrium is quite thick and 3 layers of thick but smooth muscle create undefined portions. These muscles lay in several variations in regards to their patterns. Some lay in a circular pattern while others create longitudinal or spiral patterns.

The thickest segment of the myometrium is located in the fundus while the thinnest segment is located within the cervix. These muscles respond and contract with great force when stimulated during parturition.

The endometrium contains 2 distinctive layers, and is the inner mucous laden membrane lining of the uterus. The first layer is the layer that releases during menstruation which is called the superficial stratum functionale. It is made up of columnar epithelium and contains glands which secrete fluids for menstruation or other natural functions.

During stimulation from the steroid hormones of the ovaries, this layer builds up once again in preparation for a fertilized egg. The stratum basale is responsible for building the inner layer after menstruation and is loaded with vascular qualities.
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