Female reproductive system


The female reproductive system is an intricate system designed not only to produce new life, but keeps the hormonal balance that makes a woman a woman. Hormonal balance is linked to female health as hormonal imbalance is linked to female diseases.

There are a remarkable number of similarities between the female and male reproductive system. While structurally and functionally unique, much of the process and development is nearly identical. Both systems are homologous, or developed from similar embryonic tissue. Both male and female reproductive systems have gonads, and develop and become fully functional with the onset of puberty. However, unlike the male reproductive system, the female reproductive system is based on a rhythmic cycle which when functionally operational can be predicted.


The female body is born with fully a fully formed reproduction system which requires a hormonal influx in order to become fully matured. From the onset of puberty until the completion of menopause, a healthy female reproductive cycle is able to procreate technically once monthly except when there is a developing fetus inside the woman’s uterus.

The ovaries are responsible for the discharge of an egg at about the same time each and every cycle. After ovulation, the egg has a limited amount of time to be fertilized by spermatozoa and implant itself in the uterus for the development of a human fetus. The fertilized egg will develop into a human fetus while the unfertilized egg will be released along with additional uterine lining that had been preparing for the development of a fertilized egg. This process of release is known as menstruation.
Female reproductive system
Image: Female Reproductive System

Puberty, the maturity of the female reproductive system, usually occurs around age twelve and continues until menopause, which typically occurs around age fifty. At any age between puberty and menopause an egg can be fertilized and human life can develop.


The female reproductive system is responsible for the production of ova, the production and secretion of hormones, the reception of the male spermatozoa and the induction of egg fertilization, create provisional sites for a fertilized egg which will lead to implantation of the blastocyst, and to develop a fetus until the fetus is mature enough to leave the uterus. The female reproductive system also provides a systematic method of birth, and ample nourishment for human life after birth via milk produced by the mammary glands in the breasts.

The female reproductive system can be segregated into various categories via their functional capabilities. The primary sex organs, known as gonads, are referred to as the ovaries. Eggs, also known as gametes, are produced within the ovaries. The ovaries are also responsible for the production and secretion involving the female sex steroid hormones. These vital sex hormones promote changes within the young female body and promote the cycle of menstruation.


Secondary sex organs deal with the body’s ability to successfully develop a fertilized egg. Secondary sex organs also deal with the successful carrying of a fetus to term, the delivery of that fetus, and the ability to nourish the baby. This process is known as successful ovum fertilization, blastocyst implantation, embryo and fetal development, and parturition. The vagina, the external genitalia, fallopian tubes, and the uterus are part of the secondary sex organ grouping. The vagina is the orifice that receives the sperm and delivers a baby. The external genitalia protect the vaginal opening, while the fallopian tubes carry the egg to the uterus in hopes of fertilization. The uterus is a protective environment suitable for embryonic implantation and fetal development to occur. Mammary glands, which are also secondary sex organs, develop and produce milk for feeding and immune development in a newborn baby. The walls of the uterus are capable of assisting through their muscular achievement the process of parturition, or giving birth.

Secondary sexual characteristics are not necessarily needed for the process of procreation but are considered part of the reproductive system as they play a critical role in attracting a suitable mate. Just like in the natural world, survival of the fittest is partially attributed to finding a mate that is suitable for survival. In humans, sexual attraction has everything to do with procreation of the species.

Secondary sexual characteristics in females include breasts, hips, mons pubis, abdomen, the pattern of body hair, and pelvis size. These characteristics can be considered necessary for mate attraction. While breast house the mammary glands which are part of the essential sex organs, breasts themselves are not necessary, only the glands. The natural distribution of fat can either create or repel a sexual attraction of a potential mate.
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human anatomy Organs included in Female reproductive system

Mammary glandsOvariesUterine tubes
Uterine wallUterusVagina