Urinary system


The urinary system is responsible for the maintenance and the composition of the properties of specific body fluids that are known to establish the internal environment. The urinary tract is mostly responsible for the excretion of liquid bodily wastes. The term micturition refers to the process of urination. Just as the digestive system, the respiratory system, and the integumentary system, the urinary system is a system designed for secretion of fluid. In light of this responsibility and design, these systems are commonly known as excretory systems as well.

The very core of cellular metabolism is based on the principle of the body’s ability to turn air and nutrients into energy, whether from the oxygen brought in by the respiratory system or the nutrients brought in by the digestive system, the cells utilize this energy for sustaining life. The same metabolic process which produces energy also produces wastes, some of which are in the form of liquids. The elimination of these wastes is necessary to maintain homeostasis as the build up of wastes can lead to toxic poisoning of the body.


Just as the circulatory system is responsible for the transport of nutrients and other life sustaining material to the tissue it is also responsible for the transport of waste materials the tissues leave behind. The circulatory system alleviates the wastes from tissue fluids and deposits them in the appropriate excretory system. Liquid wastes are deposited in the urinary system.


Urinary system
Image: Urinary System

Various systems are responsible for the elimination of wastes. The digestive system eliminates wastes which are associated with solid forms of nutrients and wastes derived from edible content. Carbon dioxide is eliminated from the body via the respiratory system. The integumentary system is responsible for the removal of excessive metabolic heat, nitrogenous wastes, salt, and excess water.

The body’s balance of fluids, in particular water and electrolytes, is left to the urinary system. Electrolytes begin their journey as compounds but with the introduction of water, they dissolve into various ions. When an equal number of electrolytes are entering the body as well as leaving the body, this is known as electrolyte balance. PH balance is achieved when hydrogen ions are maintained at an appropriate level in the body. Every fluid balanced is maintained, elevated, or decreased in the same manner and is completely reliant upon the urinary system.


The urinary system is also responsible for eliminating from the human body toxic nitrogen based wastes. These compounds are not limited to but include urea and creatinine. Toxic wastes which originate from chemicals, drugs or medications, and bacteria can also be removed via the urinary system. In order to accomplish this task, the formation of urine, which happens in the kidneys, is necessary. The urinary system is comprised of an intelligent filtering and processing system divided up by various organs.

The kidneys extend the filtered urine into the two ureters which then empty into a sac for storage, known as the bladder. When the bladder has reached a specified limit of content, pressure builds signaling the need for urination. When the bladder is full and the process of excretion is ready to be completed, the urine travels down the urethra and exits via the appropriate gender based organ.

The circulatory system assists the entire process via vascular networks in the kidneys that are intertwined with the kidney’s tubules. The kidneys also process and filter blood, which enters the kidney through renal artery of extensive proportions. Once the blood has been thoroughly filtered and is ready for return to the body it exits the kidneys through the renal vein. About one thousand two hundred milliliters of blood are cleansed and filtered by both kidneys in approximately one minute.

The urinary system keeps the body as free of toxins, poisons, and bacteria as possible. Without the process perfected by the urinary system, the body would poison itself to death.
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human anatomy Organs included in Urinary system

KidneysNephronRenal blood vessels
UretersUrethraUrinary bladder