Atropina is a tropane alkaloid obtained from Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade), Datura stramonium (jimsonweed), Mandragora officinarum (mandrake), and other plants of the family Solanaceae. This versatile medicament is a secondary metabolite of the above plants and provides a wide variety of effects and uses. Classified as an anticholinergic medicament, it serves as a competitive antagonist for the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.
Due to Atropina's potential deadliness, the medicament derives its name from one of the three Fates, Atropos, who, according to Greek mythology, chose how a person would die. The World Health Organization considers this a core medicine for the association's Essential Drugs List. This is a list of minimum medical requirements for a basic healthcare system.
Adult dosages range from around half a milligram to one milligram or five to ten milliliters of the 0.1 milligram/milliliter solution for antisialagogue and other antivagal effects, plus two to three milligrams or twenty to thirty milliliters of the 0.1 milligram/milliliter solution as an antidote for organophosporous muscarinic mushroom poisoning.
Patients without access to an IV should use the endotracheal administration of Atropina. The recommended adult dosage of Atropina for endotracheal administration is one to two milligrams diluted to a total of no more than ten milliliters of normal saline or sterile water. For cases that are not serious or critical, titration intervals of one or two hours are most suitable.
Atropina Sulfate Injection (USP) should be administered with care when given to all individuals over forty years of age. Acute glaucoma in susceptible patients may occur during Atropina treatment. Conventional systemic dosages may lead to complete urinary retention in patients with prostatic hypertrophy, convert partial organic pyloric stenosis into complete obstruction, or cause inspissation of bronchial secretions and formation of dangerous viscid plugs in patients with chronic lung disease. Inform your doctor of your complete medical history before starting treatment. This is of the utmost importance.
Even though the recurrent use of Atropina is crucial in patients suffering from coronary artery disease, the total dosage of the medicine should not exceed two to three (maximum 0.03 to 0.04 milligrams/kilograms) to prevent the harmful side effects of Atropina-caused tachycardia on myocardial oxygen demand.
As for patients suffering from bradyasystolic cardiac arrest, a single milligram dosage of Atropina should be taken intravenously and repeated every three to five minutes if symptoms persists. Three milligrams (0.04 milligrams/kilograms) given intravenously is a completely vagolytic dosage in most patients. Also, the administration of less than 0.05 milligrams can produce a paradoxical heart slowness because of the peripheral or central parasympathomimatic effects of low dosage Atropina in some adults.
As an antidote, Atropina's two to three milligram dosage should be repeated no less than every twenty to thirty minutes until symptoms are significantly reduced or signs of Atropina poisoning occur. Dosing information for children hasn't been well researched. Usage history of initial dosage is usually around 0.01 to 0.03 milligrams/kilograms of body weight.
Side effects directly related to Atropina include tachycardia, photophobia, blurred vision, and dryness of mouth. These symptoms commonly occur with chronic administration of therapeutic dosages. Anhidrosis, heat intolerance, and impaired temperature regulation may also occur to patients living in an arid environment. Elderly patients may also suffer urination difficulties and constipation. Occasional hypersensitivity, skin rashes, and exfoliation have also been reported. If you experience any of these symptoms, consult your doctor.
Side effects due to excessive dosage (Atropina poisoning) include ataxia, fatigue, tremor, restlessness, dizziness, thirst, hot and dry skin, difficulty swallowing, dilated pupils, and abnormality of heartbeat. Toxic dosages may lead to coma, delirium, hallucinations, restlessness and excitement, and marked abnormality of heartbeat. Severe intoxication while undergoing Atropina treatment can also lead to circulatory collapse and unipolar disorder. Therefore patients will want to stay away from alcohol consumption while taking this medicament. Consult your doctor immediately if you experience any of these symptoms.
Atropina has the following structural formula:
• Molecular formula of atropina is C17H23NO3
• Chemical IUPAC Name is (8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl) 3-hydroxy-2-phenyl-propanoate
• Molecular weight is 289.369 g/mol
• Atropina available : 5ml 1% bottles
©2007-2017 Medicalook.com All rights reserved