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Ibuprofen is a pain and fever relieving medication. It belongs to a class of medications called NSAIDs, or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. While it is indicated for many types of pain, some of the most common uses are for the relief of arthritis, menstrual cramps, fever, headache, backache, colds, toothaches, and inflammation. It is also thought to be beneficial in treating low blood pressure and preventing Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. In lower doses, Ibuprofen can be purchased over the counter, and at higher doses a prescription is required. It comes in tablets, coated tablets, gelatin capsules, oral suspension liquid, drops, chewable tablets, intravenous, and in a topical form that is absorbed through the skin.

Ibuprofen has the lowest rate of any of the NSAIDs of adverse effects in the gastronintestinal region. Among these and other side effects can be included sensitivity to light, nausea, constipation, heartburn, gas or bloating, stomach or intestinal bleeding or perforation, diarrhea, headache, dizziness, rash, high blood pressure, ringing in the ears, retention of salt and fluid, and nosebleed. Other more rare side effects can include ulceration of the esophagus, heart failure, impaired kidney function, elevated levels of potassium, confusion, hoarseness, extreme tiredness, loss of appetite, yellowing of the skin or eyes, pale skin, flu-like symptoms, fast heartbeat, back pain, and bronchospasm. In very rare cases, you could develop Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, a life-threatening sensitivity of the skin and mucous membranes, and people who take high doses of Ibuprofen may also be at increased risk of a heart attack or stroke. Other rare side effects may include itching, rash, hives, swelling of the eyes, face, throat, lips, hands or feet; if you experience these side effects, you should stop taking Ibuprofen and contact your doctor or seek emergency help immediately.

Like many drugs, Ibuprofen can react badly with certain foods or other drugs. The blood levels of lithium may be increased by the presence of Ibuprofen. It may also reduce the effects of drugs given to lower blood pressure. You should use caution when taking blood thinners, such as Coumadin, because Ibuprofen can have mild blood-thinning properties. Certain blood sugars, such as aminoglycosides, can increase, because the ability of the kidneys to eliminate these sugars from the body is reduced. Ibuprofen can also reduce the effect of certain diuretics, so some patients need to be monitored for signs of kidney failure.

Ibuprofen is not recommended for use by pregnant women, since no well-controlled studies have been done to establish it safety or the safety of a developing fetus. It is especially not recommended in the third trimester of pregnancy, due to the risk of certain ducts in the fetal heart being closed prematurely. However, Ibuprofen is not excreted in breast milk, and therefore should be quite safe for women to take while nursing an infant. Ibuprofen is prescribed for children, sometimes in conjunction with another medication, to relieve pain and fever. It is also considered safe for the elderly, though as with all medications, caution should be taken.

Ibuprofen has the following structural formula:

Chemical structure of ibuprofen

 Molecular formula of ibuprofen is C13H18O2
 Chemical IUPAC Name is 2-[4-(2-methylpropyl)phenyl]propanoic acid
 Molecular weight is 206.281 g/mol
 Ibuprofen available : 400mg tablets, 600mg tablets, 800mg tablets

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