Ciprofloxacin review

Ciprofloxacin has been a very useful answer to the treatment of an array of bacteria. In addition, it also renders less potential side effects compared to others in its class.

Ciprofloxacin is the generic name of the synthetic antibiotic which also comes in brand names such as Cipro, Ciprobay and Ciproxin. It belongs to a group of drugs called fluoroquinolones which act as bacteriocidals. Generally, bacteria in the human body are eliminated and growth and spread is stopped through inhibitive actions. Ciprofloxacin is useful against a variety of bacterial infections including some urinary tract infections as well as for the treatment and prevention of anthrax.

Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic effective against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. It directly acts on enzymes to prevent bacterial cell division. Included in the array of bacteria that it fights are enterobacteriaceae, brucella, neisseria, campylobacter, vibrio, mycobacterium intracellulare, legionella sp., pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, streptococcus pneumoniae and Chlamydia. It is not as effective however in fighting bacteroides, entercoccus faecium, streptococcus pyogenes and ureaplasma urealyticum.

Like any other drug, ciprofloxacin can cause several side effects but incidences are mostly safe and manageable. Compared to other fluoroquinolones, severity and frequency is low and usually range from mild to moderate. Mild to moderate side effects that should be reported include nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, indigestion, headache, diarrhea, nervousness, anxiety, irritability, nightmares, insomnia, feelings of distrust, vaginal itching or discharge. Serious ones should immediately be reported and patients should stop taking ciprofloxacin until further notice. Examples are rashes, hives, joint and muscle pain, fainting, arrhythmia, hoarseness of voice, tingling sensation, easy fatiguability, loss of appetite, fever, hallucination, depression, double vision, seizure, suicidal ideations and loss of sensitivity to touch.

Individuals with known hypersensitivity to quinolones and fluoroquinolones should be cautious about taking the drug. Ciprofloxacin may interact with tizanidine, anticoagulants, acetazolamide, anti-diarrheals, methotrexate and anti-inflammatory medications. Patients should consult their physician first if they are taking any herbal medications and nutritional supplements. Operating machinery or driving is discouraged until the effects are fully realized. The drug can also increase skin sensitivity to ultraviolet light and sunlight but sunburns are not normal and should be reported.

Ciprofloxacin’s mode of action is to block bacterial DNA proliferation and spread by binding to the DNA gyrase enzyme. This enzyme is a type II topoisomerase and important in separating replicated DNA. The binding action will cause double-stranded breaks in the chromosome of the bacteria which stops cell division. The drug also directly acts on any existing bacteria under its coverage, killing them immediately.

24 women ages 22 to 32 suffering from urinary tract infection were given 500 mg of ciprofloxacin twice daily in the form of oral tablets. After 1 week, half of the women were already completely free from symptoms and by the end of the second week, all women were fully healed. Only 3 of the women reported mild side effects while the others did not experience any adverse reaction.

Ciprofloxacin is a nonprescription medication and can be bought at pharmacies and doctors’ clinics. Be sure to check the expiry date, manufacturing company and location. When buying over the internet, be sure that the source exists by checking the address and asking for verification.

Ciprofloxacin should be taken according to the recommended dose. Never double the dose if one is missed. Each dose should be taken with a full glass of water and pills should be swallowed whole, not crushed or chewed. Patients are discouraged from taking dairy products. The drug should be stored at room temperature and kept out of children’s reach constantly.

Ciprofloxacin has the following structural formula:

Chemical structure of ciprofloxacin

• Molecular formula of ciprofloxacin is C17H18FN3O3
• Chemical IUPAC Name is 1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-7-piperazin-1-yl-quinoline-3-carboxylic acid
• Molecular weight is 331.342 g/mol
Ciprofloxacin available : 0.3% solution 10ml bottle, 0.3% solution 2.5ml bottle, 0.3% solution 5ml bottle, 250mg tablets, 500mg tablets, 750mg tablets

Brand name(s): Bacquinor, Baycip, Bernoflox, Ciflox, Cifloxin, Ciloxan, Ciprinol, Cipro, Ciprobay, Ciprocinol, Ciprodar, Ciprodex, Ciprofloxacina, Cipromycin, Ciproquinol, Ciproxan, Ciproxin, Flociprin, Floxin, Ocuflox, Ofloxacin, Septicide, Velomonit

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