The Dolasetron drug is classified as a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist that is used after chemotherapy. The main effect of the drug is to reduce vagus nerve activity, which is responsible for the activation of the vomiting center in the medulla oblongata. Dolasetron is broken down slowly, staying for a long period of time in the body. A single dose usually would last 4 to 9 hours and is only administered once or twice on a daily basis.
Dolasetron is used to treat nausea and vomiting induced from chemotherapy. They are also used for treatment of post-operative and post-radiation vomiting and nausea.
Dolesatron is available in tablet form taken orally or in liquid form taken intravenously. The recommended dose for adults is 100 mg taken orally within two hours before surgery (0.6 – 0.5 mg if taken intravenously). The dosage for children aged 2 to 16 is based on body weight – which is 1.2mg of dolasetrong per kg of body weight taken orally taken an hour before surgery (same dosage, taken 30 minutes before surgery)
For prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting, the recommended administration is through the veins (IV) and should be given at doses of 0.35mg per kilogram of body weight for children, and 12.5mg for adults as needed. The maximum dosage to be given is at 100mg/dose.
Dolesatron has been found out to be a well tolerated drug with very few reported side effects. The most commonly reported side effects associated with dolasetron use are headaches, constipation and dizziness.
There have been few reports of alterations in taste, increase in appetite, hypertension, sedation, slow movement, fatigue, grogginess and visual complaints (blurred vision). Pain at injection site and paresthesia have also been reported as some side effects of the drug.
No significant drug interactions were reported with the use of dolasetron. The cytochrome P450 system in the liver breaks down the drug and shows little to zero effect on other drugs broken down by this system. However, prior to taking dolasetron, the doctor must be informed if the patient is taking diuretics or water pills, and other drugs that may affect heart rhythm. The drug must not be mixed with other drugs on the same syringe. Dolesatron use or stoppage must only be down under the doctor or pharmacist’s approval.
Caution is to be exercised with patients who have developed or may develop prolonged cardiac conduction intervals, such as QTc intervals. Included here are patients with hypomagnesia or hypokalemia; patients under diuretic drugs; persons taking antiarrhythmic drugs that may prolong QT intervals, and persons under a high dosage anthracycline therapy. Breastfeeding patients must first consult the doctor prior to its use. The potential benefits of the drug to the patient must be weighed against the potential benefits to the nursing infant.
A detailed medical history must be reported to the doctor, including hypersensitivity or drug allergies, mineral levels, and hear problems. Mental tasks such as driving and machine operation must be given consideration if under this drug regimen as it may cause dizziness. Alcohol may aggravate the side effects of the drug.
Dolasetron has the following structural formula:
• Molecular formula of dolasetron is C19H20N2O3
Brand name(s): Anzemet, Dolasetronum
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