Enoxaparin is a drug classified as a heparin, or a blood thinner. Commonly known as anticoagulants, heparins and drugs like enoxaparin prevents blood clot formation.
Enoxaparin prevents blood clots which may be classified as deep vein thrombosis that may lead to blood clot in the lungs. This type of blood clotting may occur in people after certain forms of surgery, or if a person has been bedridden for a long period of time.
Enoxaparin is a drug used to prevent blood clots in lungs, or any type of blood clotting caused by prolonged period of being bedridden or after some types of surgery. It is also used to treat blood vessel problems in people affected with certain types of chest pains or angina, myocardial infarctions classified as non-Q wave or ST-segment elevation infarctions.
Enoxaparin is marketed under brand names Lovenox, Clexane, Clexane Forte, and Lovenox HP. It is generally used for the prophylaxis of thromboembolism in the veins either due to orthopedic surgery, acute illness. It is also used to treat patients with deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism.
Enoxaparin may be administered intravenously or subcutaneously. The doses of enoxaparin to be administered to patients vary per ailment treated.
Deep vein thrombosis – the usual adult dose for the prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis is 40 mg of enoxaparin administered subcutaneously once a day. The duration of Enoxaparin administration may be from 6 to 11 days. Pediatric dose for deep vein thrombosis is dependent on the patient’s weight and age. For patients less than two months, 0.75 mg/kg of enoxaparin is administered subcutaneously every 12 hours. For patients two months and older, 0.5mg/kg of enoxaparin should be administered.
Myocardial infarction and Angina Pectoris – adult dosage should be at 1 mg/kg subcutaneously every 12 hours. Treatment is to be administered not less than 2 days and is to be continued until the patient has been stabilized.
The swelling of injection sites, lips, face, throat and tongue may result from the use of enoxaparin. Other side effects may include patients having a pale color, unusual tiring and weakness, and some patients may bruise too easily. The use of enoxaparin may also trigger some other side effects such as low heart rate, difficulty in breathing, chest pains and even profuse bleeding that does not stop. Swelling of extremities, nausea and dizziness are some less serious side effects from taking the drug.
Prior to the use of enoxaparin, the administering physician must be warned if the patient is taking any other form of blood thinners, as this may increase the effects of the drug.
Precaution is given to patients with hypersensitivity/allergy to enoxaparin, other form of blood thinners/heparin or pork allergy. Enoxaparin is not to be administered to patients with low platelet counts or any patient experiencing major bleeding. Enoxaparin may not be used by a patient with a weak heart and kidney, high blood pressure, history of stroke, an artificial heart valve and any bleeding or clotting disorder.
Although enoxaparin has not been found to be of any harm to the fetus, enoxaparin use must still be consulted to the doctor and the benefits of the drug must be weighed against its risk to the baby. Nursing mothers should inform the doctor prior to the use of the drug.
Enoxaparin has the following structural formula:
• Chemical IUPAC Name is C26H40N2O36S5
Brand name(s): Clexane, Enoxaparin sodium, Lovenox
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