is a sulfonylurea antidiabetic agent, a class of drugs used to treat type II diabetes
mellitus. This disease is a chronic metabolic illness characterized by a deficiency of insulin
, a hormone
produced by the pancreas
which controls the sugar in the blood
. The lack of insulin leads to hyperglycemia, or an increase in blood sugar levels. It also causes improper metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and fat in the body.
Glibenclamide stimulates the pancreas to produce and release insulin in order to lower and regulate blood sugar levels. It also encourages sugar in the blood to travel to cells where it is needed to convert into energy. These actions, combined with a healthy diet low in fat and sugar will help diabetes sufferers regulate their blood sugar levels effectively.
Glibenclamide is counterindicated in people who are allergic to any of its ingredients, or to sulfonamide medications and thiazide diuretics. Patients who have congenital blood diseases and mental health
ailments (porphyrias) should refrain taking Glibenclamide.
While under medication, patients are advised to avoid imbibing excessive amounts of alcohol. Elderly patients should use Glibenclamide only with their doctor's advise, as this medication increases the risk of low blood sugar levels occurring during the course of treatment.
Pregnant women should consult their doctor about the use of Glibenclamide, bearing in mind that the benefits derived from the use of this medication should greatly outweigh the risks it might bring to the unborn baby. If taking Glibenclamide is unavoidable during pregnancy, the patient should stop taking the medication at least 2 weeks before the expected delivery date. As this medication also passes into breast
milk, breastfeeding mothers should refrain from taking Glibenclamide, as well.
Patients should apprise their doctor about the other medications they may be taking as these may have adverse effects when taken with Glibenclamide. Some of these drugs intensify Glibenclamide's effects and may cause low blood sugar levels. These drugs include aspirin
, sulphonamide antibiotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), beta-blockers, cotrimoxazole, warfarin
, anabolic steroids, antifungal medications, testosterone, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), phenylbutazone and clofibrate.
Other drugs interact with Glibenclamide by reducing its effects, thus leading to high blood sugar levels. These include corticosteriods, diuretics, oral contraceptives, chlorpromazine and rifampicin.
Patients who are suffering from acidosis (acid in the blood), liver
ailments, high fever
, diabetic ketoacidosis (ketones in the blood), or have recently suffered severe burns, diabetic coma , severe injuries, or have undergone any major surgery should inform their doctor of these conditions as these medical problems may alter the efficacy of Glibenclamide. Other conditions which may affect the use of this drug include chronic diarrhea
, severe infections, considerable mental stress, adrenal gland ailments, intestinal problems, vomiting
disease, and thyroid or pituitary gland
Some of the common side effects of Glibenclamide include headaches
, abdominal pain, diarrhea or constipation
and vomiting, joint pain
(low blood sugar levels), weight gain, frequent urination
, facial swelling
, skin rashes, drowsiness, palpitations, double vision, tiredness, excessive hunger or decrease in appetite, restless sleep, and some blood disorders
. Although less common, convulsions and fainting may occur, and these will require immediate medical attention.
In recently published medical findings, it was suggested that Glibenclamide caused more deaths annually when it was taken in combination with metformin
, an insulin-secreting drug.
Glibenclamide is sold under the brand names Glimel, Diabeta, Glynase, and Micronase
, and is available in 1.25 mg, 2.5 mg and 5 mg tablets. Each patient's dosage is determined by their individual condition, particularly by the sugar levels in their blood and urine.
Glibenclamide will not cure diabetes, only control it. As soon as blood sugar levels have been established at a comfortable level, the doctor will likely prescribe Glibenclamide as a regular maintenance medication, in conjunction with proper diet, exercise, and regular testing of blood sugar levels when needed.
Glibenclamide has the following structural formula:
• Molecular formula of glibenclamide is C23H28ClN3O5S
• Chemical IUPAC Name is 5-chloro-N-[2-[4-(cyclohexylcarbamoylsulfamoyl)phenyl]ethyl]-2-methoxy-benzamide
• Molecular weight is 494.004 g/mol
• Glibenclamide available : 2,5mg tablets, 5mg tablets