Morphine review

The drug morphine is considered the prototypical opioid, and is the principal active ingredient in opium. The drug is a highly potent analgesic drug, and is also classified as a psychoactive drug.

The main action of morphine is directly in the central nervous system in order to relieve the pain. The drug however has a very high potential for addiction. Dependence and tolerance, both psychological and physical, develop rapidly for the drug.

Morphine is marketed by several pharmaceutical companies under various trade names, particularly as pain killers. Some common brand names include Anafil, Doloral, Filnarine, and Morphin, among others.

Morphine is generally used to treat pain. This may be used as an analgesic to relive various pains such as pain caused by myocardial infarctions, surgical pain and trauma pains. Morphine may also be used to relive chronic pain from cancer, back pains, and other severe chronic pain. Some use morphine concomitantly with general anesthesia.

As there are various morphine drugs available, there are varying dosages as well. However, as morphine is a very powerful drug, most drugs are used orally or subcutaneously as gel patches.

The dosage administered by doctors for morphine is usually individualized, accounting for the need of the drug, and the reaction of the body to tolerance and potential dependence. Most morphine drugs are given at a recommended dosage of 100mg once daily.

The most common and less serious side effect of morphine is gastrointestinal pains. One of the most common side effects in the gastrointestinal area is constipation. Morphine, much like other opioids acts in the intestinal tract, reducing motility of the gut.

Across various studies, the most prevalent and perhaps the most serious side effect of the drug is addiction. Coupled with morphine addiction is an increase in morphine tolerance and increased dependence. This side effect leads to psychological and behavioral problems such as delusions, paranoia, and even withdrawal symptoms. Symptoms of withdrawal include diarrhea, insomnia, heavy sweating, dysphoria, and drug craving.

Side effects associated with the drug may also include muscle pain, goose bumps, cold flashes, and muscle spasms. Skin rashes, allergies, nausea and vomiting may also be experienced as a side effect and signs withdrawal symptom in a morphine therapy patient.

Morphine is contraindicated in patients with the following conditions:
kidney impairment;
chemical toxicity, which is found to be fatal for patients with low tolerance;
hypersensitivity to morphine or its known components;
patients who are Biliary colic, and;
acute respiratory depression

Although morphine is not directly observed in pregnant women, caution must be exercised when administering the drug to pregnant women or women planning to become pregnant in the near future. Morphine is not recommended for women prior to their labor and delivery as opioid analgesics such as morphine may prolong the labor as it reduces the strength, frequency and duration of uterine contractions.

Pregnant women who have taken morphine may produce off-springs with withdrawal syndrome. Neonatal withdrawal syndrome may show in babies as irregular sleep patterns, tremors, diarrhea, weight loss, hyperactivity, and may even lead to death of the infant.

There have been no known studies of morphine treatment with pediatric and geriatric patients; however, caution must be exercised as the effects of the drug nay vary for the child and the elderly population.

Morphine has the following structural formula:

Chemical structure of morphine

• Molecular formula of morphine is C17H19NO3
• Chemical IUPAC Name is (5?,6?)-Didehydro-4,5-epoxy-17-methylmorphinan-3,6-diol
• Molecular weight is 285.338 g/mol
Morphine available : 30mg capsules, 45mg capsules, 60mg capsules, 75mg capsules, 90mg capsules and 120mg capsules

Brand name(s): Apokyn, Avinza, Depodur, Dulcontin, Duramorph PF, Duromorph, Epimorph, Kadian, Meconium, Morfina, Morphia, Morphin, Morphina, Morphinism, Morphinum, Morphitec, Morphium, Moscontin, Ms Contin, Nepenthe, Oramorph SR, Ospalivina, Paregorique, Rescudose, Roxanol, Roxanol UD, Statex

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