Progesterone review

Progesterone is a useful hormone that can help regulate menstruation and minimize risk for cancer. Find out the proper methods of consumption to maximize the benefits.

Progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone naturally produced by the human body specifically during the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy and embryogenesis. It is also distributed and sold under the brand name Prometrium. It belongs to a class of hormones known as progestogens and is the major occurring type. Progesterone is used in adjunct to hormone replacement therapy in post-menopausal women who did not have hysterectomy. Estrogen may cause symptoms like abnormal thickening of the uterus lining as well as increasing the risk for uterine cancer development so progesterone helps by reducing the total estrogen count in the uterus. It can also help normalize menstruation cycles of some women. Commercially sold progesterone comes in the form of capsules which should be taken orally.

Progesterone can also cause various side effects such as sudden numbness or weakness on one side of the body, headache, confusion, vision problems, speech disorder, lack of balance, chest pain, pounding heartbeat, pain behind the eyes, nausea, stomach pain, low fever, jaundice, dark urine, clay-colored stool, loss of appetite, migraine, swelling of the extremities, breast lump, chills, flu-like symptoms, body aches, depression, insomnia and mood swings. Other less serious side effects include dizziness, mild nausea, diarrhea, stomach cramping, breast tenderness or pain, weight changes, cough, acne, irritability, vaginal itchiness or discharge, muscle pain, sneezing and runny nose.

Contraindications to progesterone include known hypersensitivity to the drug, oils or peanuts,history of stroke or blood clot, cardiovascular problems, breast or uterine cancer, abnormal vaginal bleeding, pregnant women, women who had an incomplete or missed abortion, liver disease and kidney disease. Special precaution should be given to patients who have congestive heart failure, asthma, seizure, diabetes and depression. Progesterone may also interact with some drugs such as amiodarone, antifungals, cimetidine, erythromycin, isoniazid, verapamil, oral contraceptives and zafirlukast. Make sure the doctor is fully informed about all drugs, herbal medicines and supplements currently taken.

As a hydrophobic molecule, progesterone freely diffuses through cell plasma membranes. The response element of the hormone is a specific DNA sequence in certain gene promoters to turn the genes on or off. The progesterone together with its receptor then forms a transcription factor. G-protein-coupled receptors are exposed at the cell surface embedded in the plasma membrane which when bound to by hormones results to faster effects compared to receptors found in the nucleus.

16 women with irregular menstrual cycles underwent a test wherein they were asked to take 10 mg of progesterone 3 times a day for 6 to 12 days every month for 4 months. During the first 2 months, almost half of the women exhibited improvement in the regularity of their menstrual cycle. By the end of the fourth month, 11 women already had normal or more predictable menstruations.

Progesterone is naturally occurring in the body. However, commercial versions are also found in doctor’s clinics, pharmacies and online drugstores. Make sure you check the expiry date, manufacturer and source to know that it is truly fresh and of good quality.

Some forms of the medication may contain peanut oil so watch out for possible allergic reactions. Avoid driving or operating heavy machinery until full effects of the drive are realized. When getting up from a lying position, rise up slowly to avoid dizziness and fainting. Store progesterone in a tightly sealed container and do not let others take the medication.

Progesterone has the following structural formula:

Chemical structure of progesterone

• Molecular formula of progesterone is C22H32O3
• Chemical IUPAC Name is 17-acetyl-17-hydroxy-6,10,13-trimethyl-1,2,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15, 16,17-tetradecahydrocyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-one
• Molecular weight is 344.488 g/mol
Progesterone available : 400mg tablets

Brand name(s): Agolutin, Amen, Colprosterone, Corlutin, Corlutina, Corluvite, Corporin, Crinone, Curretab, Cyclogest, Cyclogesterin, Cycrin, Delalutin, Flavolutan, Fologenon, Gesterol, Gestiron, Gestone, Gestormone, Gestron, Glanducorpin, Gynlutin, Gynoluton, Gynolutone, Hormoflaveine, Hormoluton, Lingusorbs, Lipo-Lutin, Lucorteum, Lucorteum Sol, Luteal Hormone, Luteine, Luteinique, Luteocrin Normale, Luteodyn, Luteogan, Luteohormone, Luteol, Luteopur, Luteosan, Luteostab, Luteovis, Lutex, Lutidon, Lutin, Lutociclina, Lutocyclin, Lutocylin, Lutocylol, Lutoform, Lutogyl, Lutren, Lutromone, Membrettes, Methylpregnone, Nalutron, Percutacrine, Piaponon, Pranone, Pregnenedione, Prempro, Primolut, Prochieve, Progekan, Progestasert, Progesterol, Progesterona, Progesteronum, Progesteronum, Progestin, Progestogel, Progestol, Progeston, Progestone, Progestosol, Progestron, Progestronol, Projestaject, Prolets, Prolidon, Prolutin, Proluton, Prolutone, Prometrium, Protormone, Provera, Syngesterone, Syngestrets, Syntolutan, Thiuranide, Utrogestan

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