Trans-Retinoic acid
Trans-Retinoic acid

Trans-Retinoic acid review

Trans-Retinoic Acid is an antineoplastic agent developed by Ligand Pharmaceuticals and is also known as Panretin or Toctino. It is a first-generation retinoid that Ligand gained FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approval of in February 1999.

As "Panretin", it is a gel used to treat people with skin lesions and AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma, while as "Toctino", it is a capsule used to treat patients with chronic hand eczema. Trans-Retinoic Acid is chemically related to Vitamin A and is a yellowish powder with a molecular formula of C20H28O2 and a molecular weight of 300.44.

Panretin, the gel version of Trans-Retinoic Acid, should be applied twice a day to cutaneous KS lesions during the initial stages of treatment. Liberally apply the gel to cover the lesion with a generous coating, and allow it to dry for three to five minutes before covering it with clothing. Avoid applying the gel on or near your nose, mouth, and eyes.

The Toctino capsule is to be taken after every meal and swallowed whole. Dosage ranges from 10 to 30 mg once every day for twelve to twenty-four weeks depending on the severity of the eczema. Consult your doctor immediately if your body is hot handling the recommended daily dose well.

Panretin’s side effects are itching, a burning sensation, and mild redness of the skin. You must also notify your doctor immediately for these less common side effects: cracking or oozing skin, blistering, stinging or tingling skin, peeling, swelling, rash, and severe redness. It's rare for patients under Panretin treatment to get sunburn, but if you do get it, you must consult your physician as soon as possible.

Toctino’s side effects are eye problems, eye inflammation or conjunctivitis, thyroid problems, decreased clotting or other blood cell disorders, flushing, muscle and joint pain, liver problems, dry skin, inflamed skin, and hair loss. Ask a pharmacist for eye drops if you need to continue Toctino treatment despite its eye-related side effects. Patients should wear glasses instead of contacts while undergoing Toctino therapy.

As with any medication, before taking Panretin, you must report to your healthcare specialist your medical history, including occurrences of tumors like lymphoma, skin conditions, and allergies. This medication has been known to induce sunburn, so you should wear sunscreen and protective clothing while undergoing Panretin treatment. You should also keep the treated areas of your skin away from sunlamps. Consult your pharmacist for any further queries and concerns.

A patient should avoid taking Toctino if you are currently taking tetracycline (a type of antibiotic); if you are allergic to Trans-Retinoic Acid, other ingredients of Toctino, or any other retinoids such as isotretinoin; if you have very high levels of Vitamin A in your body; if you have untreated thyroid disease; if you have high blood fats such as raised triglycerides or high cholesterol; if you have severe kidney disease; and if you have liver disease.

Expecting mothers should avoid using either version of this medication (Panretin or Toctino) during pregnancy because it may harm your unborn baby once it's absorbed into your bloodstream. It is not known whether this medication passes into breast milk, so it's not advised for breastfeeding mothers to use this medication. Notify your doctor before using this medication while pregnant or breastfeeding.

Trans-retinoic acid has the following structural formula:

Chemical structure of trans-retinoic acid

• Molecular formula of trans-retinoic acid is C20H28O2
• Chemical IUPAC Name is 3,7-dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexenyl)-nona-2,4,6,8-tetraenoic acid
• Molecular weight is 300.435 g/mol

Generic name: Alitretinoin

Brand name(s): Avita, Beta-retinoic acid, Panretin, Panretyn, Panrexin, Renova, Retin-A, Retinoate, Retinoic acid, Trans-Retinoic acid, Tretinoin, Vesanoid, Vitamin A acid

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